The quartz clock is a timing appliance. Everyone is familiar with the clock, it is a timer for us to indicate time. In daily life, the clock is right for 1 second. However, the requirements of clocks in many scientific research or engineering technologies are much higher. The quartz bell is caused by this need. Its main part is a very stable quartz oscillator. Take out the oscillation frequency produced by the quartz oscillator. Make it drive the clock indicating time. This is the quartz clock. The best quartz clock can be allowed to be 100,000 -second every day, that is, it is only 1 second after almost 270 years. But today, this quartz clock has been replaced by other types of clocks (such as radio watches) that is much more accurate than it.

The core of the sensor of quartz crystals is the sensor element -voltage quartz chip. Its working principle is the piezoelectric effect, that is, after the quartz crystals are mechanically stressful in some directions, the electrical puppet will be generated. On the contrary, if the voltage is applied in a quartz, the specific direction will cause a variable. The phenomenon is called inverse voltage effect. If an intercourse is applied on the quartz crystal, the crystal lattice will generate mechanical vibration. When the frequency of the electric field is consistent with the inherent oscillation frequency of the crystal, the crystal resonance will appear. Due to the small intensity of the electric field produced by quartz crystals under pressure, it can produce variables only requires a very weak external electric field. This characteristic makes the voltage quartz crystal easily resonate under the incentive of an electric field to motivate. Its oscillation energy loss is small and the oscillation frequency is extremely stable. Coupled with the excellent mechanical, electrical and chemical stability of quartz, it has made it a benchmark component related to digital circuits related to digital circuits since the 1940s.

The quartz crystal has an interesting characteristic, that is, to import the positive current on one side, and at the same time, after the negative current is imported on the other side, the negative current will shrink and bend into a U -shaped. If you import positive and negative currents on both sides of the quartz crystal, quartz crystals will produce oscillation. Quartz crystals are based on this oscillating time. The quartz crystal built -in personal computer oscillates 14.31880 times per second. This is the working principle of quartz clock.

The problem is that quartz crystals are defective in quality, and poor quality is difficult to oscillate according to the correct oscillation number. Most of the impurities and forms of natural quartz crystals are not uniform, so artificial quartz crystals must be used. However, quartz production is very difficult. High accuracy is less than one -second of the positive and negative 100,000 per second, and the accuracy is low per second to reach 10,000 per second. It may not feel much like a second of 10,000, but in terms of calculation, the daily error is 0.864 seconds, and the one month will be about half a minute. This is the reason for not allowing quartz watches.

Rods, also known as wireless control clocks (English names: Radio Controlled TimePieces). The technical principle of the radio wave clock as a system is: first, the standard time signal is encoded by the standard time center (encrypted the commercial code), and the low -frequency (20kHz — 80kHz) carrier wave method is used go. The radio watch accepts the low -frequency radio timing signal through the built -in micro -radio receiving system. The timing signal is demodhed by a dedicated integrated chip, and then the control mechanism in the period will automatically adjust the timing of the clock. Through such a technical process, all watches (or other time) that receive the standard time signal are highly synchronized with the standard time of the standard time centers, and then all the radio clock watches display the strict and consistent time. The working principle of the electronic clock is designed based on the physical phenomenon of “electromagnetic, magnetic electricity”. That is, the power energy is converted to a magnetic energy, and then the magnetic energy is converted to mechanical energy, which drives the timing of the time to achieve the purpose of time.

1. The transistor clock clock uses dry batteries as energy, uses the transistor as a switch, the swimming wire is used as the oscillation system, the unified movement is J1, and the shape is the same as the ordinary alarm clock.

2. The crystal alarm clock is the same as the crystal swing wheel clock, plus a downtown device supplied by Electric Energy.

3. The transistor swing clock is used as an oscillating component with electronic circuit control, which is similar to the mechanical swing clock.

4. The quartz clock uses “quartz crystals” as an oscillator to control the operation of the motor by electronic frequency to drive the pointer. The accuracy is high. The varieties include table clocks, hanging clocks, calendar clocks, alarm clocks, music clocks, music clocks, landing clocks, and various technologies such as car clocks, ship clocks, and astronomical clocks.

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5. Several display clocks also use quartz crystals as oscillators, displaying time directly with luminous pipes or liquid crystals, without mechanical transmission. There are many functions such as time, seminars, seconds, calendars, week calendars, and month calendars.

6. Electronic watches use batteries as energy instead of clockwork. They do not need to be stringed. There are many structures. The shape is the same as a mechanical watch. It is collectively referred to as electronic watches. According to the structure form and the invention, the electronic watch is divided into four generations:

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The first generation is a swimming scarn electronic watch. It uses a swim to swim as an oscillator and a miniature battery as the energy source.

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The second generation is the sound fork electronic watch. It uses a metal sound fork as an oscillator and outputs the pulse current with electronic lines to vibrate the mechanical sound fork.

The third generation is pointer -type quartz electronic watch. It uses quartz resonators as an oscillator and drives the wheel system and pointer after the electronic frequency divisor.

The fourth generation is a digital quartz electronic meter. It also uses quartz resonator as an oscillator. The difference is that it uses the display device to display the time in the form of numbers after the frequency, counting, and decoding. The first three generations of electronic watches have traditional mechanical pointers, while the fourth generation uses large -scale integrated circuits, which is completely out of the traditional mechanical structure. Different types and principles are different, but they are inseparable from their ancestors.