● Lin Yi

Modern China has changed, and political changes have caused drastic changes in class classes. The research on modern Chinese businessmen is mainly two directions: exploring the buds and weaknesses of the Chinese bourgeoisie; revealing the origin of modern Chinese industrial and commercial civilization. Feng Xiaocai, a doctoral supervisor and historian of East China Normal University, believes that there are some problems. For example, the concept of the “bourgeoisie” is too broad; for example, the contribution of over -emphasizing the contribution of businessmen to early modernization of China is easy to increase their ideological realm and blur their cognition of them.

Therefore, Feng Xiaocai wrote the book “In the Business”, and analyzed the behavior and psychological analysis of Jiangsu and Zhejiang businessmen from 1911 to 1927, and re -observed the important aspect of China’s political evolution in recent times. Tracing the evolution of domestic politics and economy in the late Qing Dynasty, the further deterioration of the business environment after 1927, closely linked the key for more than ten years, emphasized that returning to the actual historical scene, clarifying the changes in the political movement and the changes in the attitude of the businessmen of Jiangsu and Zhejiang businessmen connect. The data columns indicate the source, the data chart is presented, spoken in facts, refuted with materials, and the sentences are implemented. Detailed annotation of the appendix in each chapter, it takes a lot of space to the whole book, and it is explained and explained. It is based on, with strong persuasiveness.

What is a businessman? Feng Xiaocai believes that business development has its inherent requirements, which depends on the political and economic institutional environment of political stability and guarantee private property rights. Feng Xiaocai put forward the interpretation of “property rights and order”, advocating starting from the perspective of new economic history, focusing on the importance of property rights in economic growth. The fundamental reason for the development of the commodity economy during the Ming and Qing Dynasties was that the private property system was basically recognized, and the business order order could basically maintain stability. However, during the period of the beginning of the Republic of China, it was greatly impacted. Passive reactions.

The Revolution of 1911 broke out. The founding of businessmen in Jiangsu and Zhejiang was mainly for self -defense. The main contribution of businessmen was the economic support of the revolutionary affairs. Effects. After 1913, businessmen across the country unanimously opposed the “Second Revolution”. It was not because of the bourgeois weakness that the academic circles usually explained, but because the businessman’s maintenance of the stable order, the revolution would bring huge losses to them. Because of this, the political orientation of businessmen contains hope for power, and sometimes they actively support a certain political force to hope that power can end the turbulent situation. The wars are stretched, and the market is withered. Prior to 1924, the Jiangsu and Zhejiang area could still be roughly stable. Since then, the outbreak of the Jiangsu and Zhejiang War was involved in the crowd. From “May 4th” to “May 30”, businessmen have always had contradictions between “public” and “private”. They were wrapped in various sports and had to sacrifice individuals for this.

From the conclusion of historical analysis, Feng Xiaocai believes that the response of Jiangsu and Zhejiang businessmen in the political change bureau, saying that “passive” is “passive”, it is a last resort. The reason for all this was in addition to the specific historical background at the time, but also because of the inherent concept of Chinese traditional culture. “Commercial War”, as a double -edged sword, protects the development of ethnic enterprises with “saving the country” as a banner on the one hand, and forced businessmen to use this as a business standard. In the long run and essence Rules. Feng Xiaocai has a great sympathy for the businessman class. In addition to the huge material losses, their spirit and personality are often insulted. Chinese businessmen are actually unwilling to get involved in politics, but have to be related to politics.

Feng Xiaocai provides a new way for studying this issue. But we must note that no individual or class can be born from history. Feng Xiaocai describes the group of the group. There is no distinctive individual appearance. Some merchants, especially the performance of leaders, cannot be said to be passive. In this way, sacrificing a certain amount of private interest is the price that can be paid. Even if the work made by China’s early modernization is not active and clear, it is worthy of recognition. This book’s focus on “property rights and order” is not only a reflection on history. In this life, it is also realistic. This is an important prerequisite for the prosperity of hundreds of industry, social development, and stability.