Have you found that some of the drinks used in life in life have some small rules: milk tea uses transparent plastic cups, hot coffee uses ceramic cups or plastic paper cups, beer uses glass … No matter what the brand is, the materials they use are almost the same.

Is there any particular about this? Will cups of different materials have different effects? Let’s talk about it today.

What are the commonly used cup materials?


porcelain cup

Ceramic cups are made of sintering after the formation of kaolin, clay and other raw materials.

It has the characteristics of high melting points and high hardness, so the cup made of ceramics is durable.

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The raw materials used by pottery cups are different from the porcelain cup, and the sintering temperature is also different:

Pottery cups use clay, porcelain cups use kaolin, and the firing temperature of pottery cups is generally lower than porcelain cups. This causes different water absorption rates of ceramic cups. The water absorption rate of high -temperature ceramic cups is low. There will be no cracked phenomenon of glaze.

When buying a ceramic cup, you can play lightly with your fingers. If it is a crisp and pleasant sound, it means that its porcelain tire is fine and dense; if the sound is hoarse, it is inferior to porcelain.



According to different processes, the glass can be divided into: ordinary glass, tempered glass, and high borosilicated heat -resistant glass. Ordinary glass is easy to break when it is easy to break. In order to solve the two shortcomings of ordinary glass, tempered glass and high borosilicate heat -resistant glass came into being.

Anti -falling:

High borosilicate heat-resistant glass is equivalent to ordinary glass, while tempered glass is 3-5 times that of ordinary glass.

High temperature resistance:

When local heating expansion, the expansion difference caused by the high borosilicate heat -resistant glass is small and is not easy to damage; while the tempered glass is not damaged due to its prestress resistance capacity, there is a prestressed resistance formed by tempered formation.

High borosilicate heat -resistant glass has a high working temperature and can reach 450 ° C, while the maximum temperature of tempered glass does not exceed 300 ° C, but

As far as hot water is concerned, the above two cups will basically not burst.

You can put the cup in the refrigerator and pour 100 degrees boiling water after cooling. If you do not burst, it is high borosilicon or tempered glass.


plastic cup


Generally speaking, the bottom of the plastic cup with numbers or letters is printed, which represents the plastic material of the cup.

The transparent cup used in milk tea [Polyzhexyate ethyl (PET/01)]:

The transparent, bending, crack resistance performance, light weight, and good resistance to the gas, but the heat resistance is not good, and it will deform around 70 ° C. Therefore, it can only be used for cold drinks or room temperature drinks.

Soft Transparent Plastic Cup [Poety (PE/04)]:

It is not very common, its heat resistance is not strong, and hot -melt phenomenon will occur after more than 110 ° C.

Non -disposable transparent water cups commonly used at home [Polypropylene Plastic Cup (PP/05)]:


Such as cups used for brushing, etc., the heat stability is better, which can withstand high temperatures at 130 ° C, but the material is more crispy and easy to break.

The hard disposable transparent plastic cup in the restaurant [polystyrene (PS/06)]:

This plastic cup has a low strength and poor heat resistance.

There is also a kind of water cup more common ——

Space cup

, Water cup belonging to other plastic materials (PC/07).


When dining abroad, you may also encounter a plastic cup similar to ceramic. It is made of deedide resin. It looks a bit like ceramics, but the intensity is much higher than the ceramics, it is not easy to break, and it is non -toxic, sour, alkaline -resistant, alkaline and resistant. It’s safer to get up.


If you encounter a cup made of “PVC/03”, which is a polyvinyl chloride, it is recommended not to use

Although this material is cheap and good plastic, after more than 81 ° C, the harmful substances in the plasticizer will be precipitated and prone to carcinogenic.



Paper cup

Paper cups are usually painted with wax or plastic to prevent liquid from leaking.

Multi -coated paper cup

The coating is usually used to refer to a paper cup that is coated with polyethylene (PE/04) materials. Compared with non -coating materials, multi -coated materials

More stable, smoother and better waterproof

And usually have single or double polyethylene, depending on the quality and durability of paper cups.

The wax coating paper cup generally refers to painting wax on the outside of the paper cup. The purpose is to enhance the strength and solidity of the paper cup

When installing cold drinks, it will not make the paper cup softer because of the water vapor on the outer wall. The paper cup will also be designed as a ripple paper cup and a double wallpaper cup, which can warm your hands without scalting.


stainless steel cup

If the ceramic cup and glass are suitable for use in the indoor environment, the stainless steel cup is definitely a winner in outdoor use and thermal insulation. The double -layer lid’s thermal insulation stainless steel cup can make the hot drink temperature for several hours. but

Most stainless steel cups often affect coffee flavor after reusing.

Which materials of cups are harmful to the human body?

Speaking of cups that are harmful to the human body, you may first think of plastic cups, but there are many types of plastic, not all plastic cups are harmful to the human body.

Most of the plastic cups are not high -temperature, such as polystyrene, polyethylene phenyamate diacerne, etc. The plastic cups made from the above materials are equipped with hot drinks, which will produce harmful substances such as styrene monomers. But aside from the dosage and toxicity is also unscientific, the migration of the styrene monomer

It mainly depends on the temperature of contact, the lipid content in the beverage, and the time of the costume.

The migration volume of the styrene monomer generally does not exceed 0.025%of its content. If you want to achieve the harm of the styrene monomer, unless you drink hundreds of cups of hot drinks a day, it will not affect the body.

The space cup made from epoxy resin above,

It will release its single bisphenol A under high temperature or light, which is harmful to the human body

So most of the bottles are not made of epoxy resin.

Some people think that disposable paper cups are also harmful to the human body. In fact,

As long as there is no need for a long time of paper cups to be overheated, there will be no big problems.

Will the stainless steel cup be heavy metal? In order to prevent rust, stainless steel cups have added more than 10 % nickel, manganese, and chromium to form low -carbon steel, but these elements are harmful to the human body. Is it harmful to stainless steel cups?

Good quality stainless steel cups are in compliance with national regulations

The volume of chromium will not exceed 0.4 mg/square meter, even if in an acidic environment for a long time, the migration of chromium ions will not exceed the standard.

It is recommended to use ceramic cups or glass. Basically, these two cups do not have the migration of harmful substances.

Drink coffee for ceramic cups, drink beer glass?

When coffee, many people choose ceramic cups or glass instead of stainless steel cups. Why? In fact, this is closely related to the thermal conductivity of the cup material. After brewing coffee or tea, the calories of coffee and tea will be passed to the cup by heat transmission, and the cup will pass the calories to the air.

Some studies have shown that the thermal coefficient of stainless steel cups is the highest of three materials (14.3 W/MK). This high thermal balance between high thermal and cups and liquids is relatively fast, which means that this means

The liquid in the stainless steel cup will quickly cool down

Essence The thermal conductivity of the ceramic cup is about 3.8 W/mk, and the thermal conductivity of the glass is about 1.1 W/mk. from that we get,

Among the above three materials, liquids can maintain higher temperature in the glass for the longest time.

Since the cup is the slowest and the best insulation effect, why do the cups in the coffee shop generally not use glass but ceramic cups? On the one hand, because the Europeans were already drinking coffee with ceramic cups in the 15th century, and the glass did only industrialization in the 19th century. Therefore,

The traditional culture of coffee decides still using ceramics as coffee cups

Essence On the other hand, it is prone to gaps and surface scratches after the glass collision. In fact, as long as the ceramic cup is slightly thicker than the glass, it can achieve the same thermal insulation effect as the glass.

And drinking beer often uses glass. It is also the same. The glass can effectively reduce the heat exchange between the external environment and ice beer, and keep the beer at a lower temperature for a longer time.

Experts in this article: Yang Chao, Ph.D. in Chemistry at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

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