A: Special airborne weapons

天降神兵—二战各国空降战术

Note that Figure A1 to A4A uses the same proportion, Figure A4B to A5 is a larger proportion.

Most airborne troops use standard infantry weapons, and some more compact weapons have been developed to help when it is conducive to paratroopers. In order to achieve this purpose, they may use folding guns or can be disassembled into two parts (so -called detachable weapons) or simply shorten the barrel. A few years after the war, after the airborne force of the axis country did not have the opportunity to perform important operations, these special weapons did not often appear on the battlefield, and conventional weapons were enough for them to use them.

At first the American paratrooper prepared a so -called “Griswold” bag with a cushion. This bag is on a buckle on the right shoulder strap of the parachute. Rifle. However, the complexity of this semi -automatic weapon makes the rifle unable to reinstall them quickly in the landing area, so many such types are used to install other types of inseparable weapons at the first level of the army. The point 30 -caliber M1A1 Cabers (Figure A1A) of the folding gun is very limited. Many troops get the traditional M1 -type Carbin gun with a wooden fixed gun. The canvas gun (Figure A1B) is used to carry the M1A1 type carbine when parachuting. It will hang on the right side of the belt through the ring. The danger of time, so the clock is either above the knee or simply not to tie.

The Japanese also developed a dismantling rifle, but for airborne operations that arrived in 1942, the equipment of this 7.7 mm caliber was obviously late. In addition, the Japanese also developed an assault rifle with a removable gun and a foldable pistol grip.

Some standard weapons are also an ideal choice for paratroopers, such as the 9mm caliber MP40 punching rifle using folding guns in Germany. In some troops, it has become a common phenomenon with a folding buttock or a telescopic bent for newly designed submachine guns. Germany’s 7.92 mm caliber FG42 rifle (Figure A2A) is a rare example. This kind of weapon developed for paratroopers covers rifles, submachine guns, and a certain extent. As a selective weapon, this “FallschirmgeWehr) is loaded from the left to fill the 20 -round magazine. This is an innovation, but there are also defects. For example flash. This type of gun was initially used with stamping metal guns, pistol grip behind the back, and two bodies relying on the back. Later, the production of wooden forces and improved pistol grip was used. The position of the muzzle (Figure A2B). In addition, the seized French MAS 36 -type needle type bayonet can be installed below the barrel from or behind the barrel.

The 60mm caliber M1 and M1A1 rocket launchers in the United States, which is the so -called “Bazuka” rocket launcher due to the long size and the paratrooper cannot carry it when parachuting it. Rockets (Figure A3A) were developed. They can be disassembled into two 31.5 inches (about 80 cm) long segments (Figure A3B), and then packed in a special bag for paratrooper to carry.

The British 2 -inch (about 51 mm) caliber infantry arranged 27 inches (about 69 cm) in length (about 69 cm); a special airborne soldier version of the 2 -inch caliber mortar size equipped by the paratroopers was cut to 19 inches ( About 48 cm). Like the basic type, this mortar can also launch a 9.6 -inch (about 24 cm) of high explosion bombs (Figure A4B) and smoke bombs (Figure A4C) and 9 inches (about 23 cm) paratrooper lighting bombs (figures. A4D).

Known as the “Ganmeng Grenades” British 82 (Figure A5), although it was not produced for paratroopers, it was designed by Captain Arthur Gammon of the 1st paratrooper camp. The airborne troops of the two countries are widely used, so this kind of grenade has also been universally connected with paratroopers. Black bags made of elastic fabrics can be plugged into different quantities of plastic explosives, which has become a weapon that blasts the target; it can be used to combat armored targets, or can come in handy in the battle of households and households. The fuse of the explosives is “standing”. After pulling off the safety needle and throwing the explosives, a gravity zone during the flight will loosen to activate the fuse; It is proven to be too short and even threatened by the user’s security. After that, it is replaced by 11.5 inches (about 29 cm) long bands.

天降神兵—二战各国空降战术

B: In the Battle of Emamar’s Battle, the “Grandit” assault brigade, May 10, 1940

The German paratrooper captured the Belgian guard in the Emmal Fortress at the connection between the Albert Canal and the Murz River. The pattern begins to appear in the war. Theoretically, as the most powerful defensive work in the world, the Emamar Fortress can cause huge casualties to attack conventional ground attacks, but the Army is reluctant to rely on the paratrooper of the wing. In the end, Major General Schutden managed to persuade the effectiveness of the General Staff to determine the effectiveness of the operation. Although attacking the main fortress is the most famous stage in the entire operation, there are other gliding machines and parachute assault teams in the bridge near the fortress. Captain Walter Koch’s assault brigade has 437 volunteers, most of them from the 1st Battalion of the 1st paratrooper, of which 362 (including glide machine driver) actually participated in the operation. The task proves the fact that the airborne operation requires huge resources. The number of assault forces with more than 90 people took 9 to 12 DFS 230 gliding machines. The total number of gliding machines was 42. In addition, 58 JU-52 drag/transport aircraft were also invested. The six of the latter cast about 24 paratroopers on each of the three bridges. Fighters and dive bomber suppressed Belgium’s air defense firepower, which also hindered their troops’ actions. At the same time, a bomber was responsible for the assault unit airdrop ammunition.

Although Belgian defenders have made many mistakes in defense plans, command and control, the success of this operation is largely due to the careful rehearsal of all German personnel and the high enthusiasm of the parachuters for gliding machines. Two of the 11 gliding machines of the “Granet” assault team on the fortress to land on the fortress, which failed to join the actual battle because the cable was separated, so the 61 people on the 9 slide machines had to face about 650 fortress alone. military.

天降神兵—二战各国空降战术

In this picture, half of the 4th team of the 4th team of Wenzel is attacking the firing hole of the Mi-NORD machine gun turret; The “eyes are blind” (B1) of the round tower, and the explosives of 50 kg of hollow are killed in the tower -this is the first time that such weapons are used in combat. After that, they continued to explode a shooting hole (B2) with 12.5 kg of dharma; at this time Wenzer (B3) and one of his men hanged about 50 kg of hemispace -shaped 50 kg on another shooting hole. A bomb, an paratrooper (B4) inserted a smoke can in the third shooting hole. The “Grandit” assault brigade destroyed the key weapons of the fortress within half an hour and caught the surplus of the remaining guards. They were killed only 6 people and 18 people were injured.

The photos on May 10 showed that this class was applied to the steel helmet with mud, and the first edition of the Nazi Air Force’s first edition of the Nazi Air Force’s first edition of the legs jumping suit with a thigh pocket was worn. Before the eagle emblem. At the same time, they also wore the first version of the side -side skydiving boots.

天降神兵—二战各国空降战术

C: In the British UK, the 2nd Parata Camp C in the British Blunval, on February 28, 1942

In the early morning of the 28th, the members of the “Jellicoe” team of Major Johnfrost’s company were preparing to attack the villas (C1) and Verzburg Radar on the top of the cliff from the south to the south. Device (C2). During training and photos taken after retreat from sea showed that all members of the team were wearing the first version of the brown -green Walda “skydiving clothing”, they directly imitated similar clothes from Germany. Some people wear their own parachutes on the top of the “parachute” on the top of the “parachute”. These people are wearing the first edition (C3) or the second version of the paratrooper steel helmet. Both have the edge of the hard rubber, and the former has a prominent rear eaves of the neck; all the helmets are covered with rope nets, Y The glyph black leather neck strap is connected to the chin’s pad. When parachuting, the basic 37 -year -old fabric vehicle equipment is worn in the jacket with a combat sequence, and then wears them outside the jacket. Both combat clothing and boots are commonly style, but many people also carry Fairbairn Sykes of Fairbairn Sykes. The huge number of MKII Sterne submachine guns seemed to have been equipped with Major John Frost’s company for this operation.

Big map in the upper right corner: The map shows the action route of different teams during the offensive. They eventually successfully evacuated from the sea, including six wounded, important components and captives seized by the radar equipment. The Chinese and British army died in the operation, and the six disappeared.

天降神兵—二战各国空降战术

The text text is from top to bottom: bunker; machine gun positions; radar facilities; roadblocks; umbrellas.

D: German umbrella invasion of Crete Island, May 1941

This is the only one truly strategic airborne operation in Germany during World War II, but it almost ended in failure, and the price paid at the same time was also high. The insufficient training and coordination of the air transport troops caused the places where the airborne troops landed were either too close to the defense’s goal, or it fell directly above the target, or unexpected or planned landing points were too scattered. The Commonwealth Army’s resistance is much stronger than expected, and the vulnerability of airborne operations during the day is much greater than expected; subsequent reinforcements from the sea also suffered heavy losses due to the interception of the Royal British Navy.

The umbrella and the gliding machine descending forces were dispatched in two waves: the first wave was on the morning of May 20th. The goal of the Western Group was Maleme, and most of the troops of the central group aimed at Canea. The second wave of airborne troops arrived on the afternoon, and the remaining part of the central group landed near Retimo, while the Eastern Group landed at Heraklion. The only three airports on Crete Island are located in Malemima, Ritamom and Iraqilion, and Cunia is the capital and naval base of the island; the safety of the airport and port must be guaranteed to be guaranteed to be able to be able to be able to be able to be able to Receive more airborne and maritime reinforcements. The initial plan required the No. 100 Mountain Corps of the 5th Mountain Division to airborne in the west, and the remaining part of the division, together with the support forces of the 7th Air Division as a reinforcement force, will arrive in Iraqilion through airborne or sea roads. Essence In view of the uncertainty of the situation of Cania, Reymo, and Iraqi Lion, General Schutont wisely transferred the main efforts to the Occupy Malaima Airport, where the German paratrooper achieved more records ; But when they began to attack Ma Limai from the west to surround the defender, the battle had reversed. By May 24th, the Command of the Commonwealth Army decided to evacuate from Sphakia on the south coast. The evacuation operation began on the 27th and ended on the 31st. Soldiers were killed here. The Royal Navy also lost many warships due to the German Air Force’s attack on the German Air Force’s attack.

Both pictures are the map of Crete Island. The above time is May 20, 1941, and the labeling time below is May 21, 1941.

The figure above is from top to bottom: the control zone of the British; the landing point of the Germans; the attack wave of Germany.

The figure below is from top to bottom: the control zone of the British; the Germans move forward; the British retreat line.

E: In the Soviet airborne soldiers in Meedyn, January 1942

In the case of the previous offense, the German central group army was divided into two. From the evening of January 2nd to the early morning of the 3rd, the Soviets conducted two collaborative airborne operations -7.5 miles in the airdrop area (about 12 about 12 In addition to), the 33rd, 43th and 49th Army of the collaborative Soviet Union began to advance. Only 31 aircraft can provide to support this operation and subsequent airdrops and airport landing operations, while extremely cold weather and heavy snow will hinder these two actions.

天降神兵—二战各国空降战术

In the north, 380 people at the 1st Battalion of the 210th Airborne Brigade will be responsible for seizing the villages near Guxevo, and at the same time destroy the bridge on the Shanya River (Shanya) connecting the Gu Xiewo and Gireevo Meiden’s highway. Then they attacked Germany’s positions in Pitovo and Fedorovka, and corresponded to the 43rd Army. In the end, the battalion met with the troops of the 43rd Army on January 11.

Near myatlevo in the south, 200 people with 200 people’s western -tier umbrellas plus 200 people from the 250th Independent Infantry Corps (camps) were responsible for occupying the airport at Bolshoye Fatyanovo and waited for the infantry regiment. The rest of the personnel were shipped in. Here, some airdrops responsible for the airdrop were driven away by the enemy’s air defense artillery. It turned out that the Germans’ resistance was too strong, and then the thick snow on the runway also prevented the landing aircraft of the army. Nevertheless, the airborne troops continued to attack the German defenders at the airport, and then managed to attract the attention of the enemy forces throughout the region. 87 survivors eventually contacted the 43rd Army. Although this operation could not achieve all the established goals, the small number of paratroopers using the Soviets could seriously hinder the German operations and supplies, and finally helped open the gap between the two German army.

天降神兵—二战各国空降战术

The picture on the left is the trend chart of the two army positions from January 3 to 8, 1942. The legend is from top to bottom: the Soviets’ plan umbrella downside; the actual umbrella landing area of ​​the Soviet army; The Germans on January 3.

The picture on the right is the trend chart of the two armies of the two armies from January 11th to 20th. The legend is from top to bottom: the German front on January 11; the German front on January 20; Soviet front; the Soviet front on January 20; the Soviet airborne troops moved lines; the German base seized.

F: Airborne attack: 82nd and 101st airborne divisions in the United States, Normandy, June 1944

On the night of June 5/6, 1944, the Allied Airborne soldiers began to attack Norman, and this action with three airborne divisions was by far the largest in such combats. The 6th Airborne Division of the UK landed on the east side of the bridgehead in the plan; this picture depicts the action and deployment of the 82nd and 101st airborne divisions on the daily (landing day) in the United States. Their task is to block the forward routes of the German reinforcement troops approaching the beach and ensure the security of the route to the inland. The 82nd Division Airlines has fallen on the northwest and west side of the STE Mere Church. Compared with the Cotentin Peninsula and guarantee the 101st Division of the Merderet on the bridge, they go deep into the inland inland. The distance is farther. The position of the 101st Division’s umbrella is close to the west side of the Utah and the southwest side, and the north of the Kotontan Peninsula to ensure the safety of the west end of the four embankment roads that crosses the large flood areas, and then seize the Douve River (Douve) Bridge and block the south wing of the beach. The scattered range of umbrella landing and gliding machines has helped the completion of these tasks -although it is unconscious, the vastness of the landing range completely confuses the Germans. Reports at multiple airborne locations.

From top to bottom: 82 airborne division landing area; 82nd airborne division mobile route; 101st airborne land landing area; 101st airborne division mobile line; German mobile line; German artillery company.

天降神兵—二战各国空降战术

G: American umbrella signer, Normani, June 1944

Most national paratroopers are “blind” through umbrellas or the way to release glide machines. They rely on the accuracy of pilot driving, the ability to identify landmarks, and the ability to maintain the formation under the enemy artillery fire, so it is difficult to settle airborne airborne Action is full of confidence. Only the U.S. and the United Kingdom use the positions of umbrellas to descending signals extensively; in the tactical level, they have no chance to invest in fighting, but as long as they are put into work, they will use a variety of means to make the transport aircraft have a good opportunity to accurately identify the umbrella on the ground. Drop or landing area.

The PPN-1 and PPN-2 radio elosure, known as the “Eureka” distribution machine, can send signals to the so-called “Rebecca” receiver installed on the leader transport aircraft. Figure G1 shows the vehicle bag installed with a PPN-1 wireless telecommunications label, which is fixed on the parachute back. Figure G2 shows how to place the PPN-2 wireless telecommunications labeling package very similar to the PPN-1 type (note that the paratrooper can be equipped with a temporary magazine bag of Topson submachine gun folder on the paratrooper). Figure G3 The character holds the standard SGR-536 “handheld intercom”. It is improved and connected to the BC-619 antenna, which can be used as a navigation transmitter; there is a M227 type on the foot of the character’s foot; Signal lights, it can be carried or placed on a tripod. Figure G4 shows that the umbrella drop signals are laid the AL-140 signal board, which uses a highly visible cherry red; the size of this type of signal board is 12 feet × 30.5 feet (about 3.7 meters × 9.3 meters), the front is red, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, orange, and orange. Or yellow, the back is white, which can be arranged into a letter code to mark a specific umbrella or landing area, or show other information. The side band can fix the signal board through a nail. In addition, the tools and equipment that the umbrella descending signals will use include flash signal lights, color smoke bombs, and brazi.

H: The 503 Umbrella Walker Corps in the U.S. U.S., Nong Forts, July 3, 1944

Compared with the skydiving, airborne reinforcements are not imagined “comfortable”, and early pioneers cannot foresee that this will be a vital ability. On July 2, 1944, when the 158th (Independence) Infantry Corps performed an amphibious combat mission in Nong Foo Island in northwestern New Guinea, the Japanese defenders’ troops and fighting spirit was unknown. And how to quickly protect the three Japanese plane runways captured here in future actions. Therefore, the U.S. military plans to descend the 503 (independent) umbrella in the next three days to the island (“Table Tennis Action”). Although there were the following choices at that time, the limited number of landing crafts to transport them to land on the shore and need to spend too much time to go back and forth, and the potholes and muddy aircraft runways make the airport’s available area crowded. unrealistic. As a result, a large number of umbrella drops have become the fastest way.

This operation from Hollandia in New Guinea is not dangerous. As an umbrella landing location, the Kamiri runway is 250 feet wide 5000 feet long (about 76 meters wide, 1524 meters long), and the location is very close to the northwest coast of New Guinea Island; , U.S. trucks, water and land amphibious vehicles, bulldozers, tents and accumulated materials. The skydiving height is only 400 feet (about 122 meters). The crew of the two-guided C-47 transport aircraft (once again) did not reset their height watch, and performed a parachute at a height of only 175 feet (about 53 meters). The aircraft runway covered by the soft mud is actually a hard coral like rock. 72 of the 739 parachutes on the 1st Battalion on July 3rd on July 3rd. Although the U.S. military tries to clear the obstacles on the edge of the runway, 56 of the 685 people were still injured in the parachuting operation of Battalion 3 the next day; in the end, 59 people were fractured in multiple places, and many commanders in the command system were injured. Essence In the end, the parachuting plan of the 2nd Battalion was canceled. They were shipped to the nearby Biak Island, and the last 60 miles (about 97 kilometers) was completed by the ship. Although the two camps encountered 9%of the casualties due to skydiving, their timely arrival still accelerated the occupation of Nong Fort Island.