By bringing plants and animals around the world, human beings continue to change and affect global diet and agricultural production. In this process, one of the most exciting but rarely discussed episodes happened on the Silk Road. Thanks to the latest discoveries of archeology and biology -especially the field of plant genetics and plant archeology, this story can be greatly white in the world. By tracking a series of plants on the historical journey on the cross -Eurasian trade route, I will reveal how we are familiar with how we are familiar with the Widongshahai and the mountains and mountains. Taste, promote our historical process.

The content of the professor in the school rarely mention Central Asia. This vast area not only has the most amazing and magnificent scenery on the earth, but also carries a heavy human history. The dangerous cliff witnessed the difficulty of the unclear camel caravan, and witnessed that the generation of herdsmen migrated with the seasons of the seasons to migrate with the seasons. The desert oasis of Central Asia bred the legendary cities along the Silk Road: Bohara, Hiva, Loulan and Samalham. Many of these cities have moved with the desert, such as the “movement lake” in Swedish explorer Sven Heping, Lop Nur. In the Gobi, Karakom Desert, Kizilkum Desert and the Taklama -Ganan Desert, Liu and Miraholi can be seen everywhere. The isolated vineyard and orchards are like a shelter. The roaring wind and sand buried many great empires, and endless deserts witnessed the rise and decline of the Greek -Kingdom of Barkrica, the Timur Empire and the Persian dynasties. They blocked the pace of Alexander’s Great Emperor, and set backgrounds for Marco Polo and his father’s journey. In a closer history, they have become a arena in the 19th century British Empire and the Tsarist Russian Empire several times. front.

Although today’s central Eurasia’s mainland seems to be a faint place, some of the regions have been a veritable Eden for the past thousands of years. Until the thousandth of AD, most parts of southern Central Asia were covered with lush shrub forests. The plant species include wild pistachios, tonsils, cherry trees, and walnut trees. Today, the main species in this area are lizards, snakes and shuttle plants, which are largely caused by human overrouts of the economy. The foothills of Central Asia have been distributed by seabuckthorn, dates, wild apples, hawthorn trees, flower crickets, and various nuts of nuts. Although these forests are nowadays, their descendants still have their offspring in the fertile farmland of small pieces.

“Desert and Table: Origin of Food on the Silk Road”, [beauty] Robert N. Sperture III, Chen Yang translated, Social Science Literature Publishing House, August 2021 Edition

去吃瓜吧:丝绸之路上的水果如何改变我们的历史

Fruit platter: the sweetness of the desert paradise

“Grape, melon, apple, pomegranate, to be honest, all the fruits are delicious in Samalham. There are two kinds of fruits that are especially famous in this place: apples and grapes. The winter there is extremely cold and it will snow. So big; when it is hot, Samalham’s climate is pleasant, but not as good as Kabul. “

Zahildin Mohammed Papul wrote in the trip compiled from 1483 to 1530. Samalham is the capital of the huge empire established by Timur (also known as Tiber fungus, 1320/1330-1405), which is located on the oasis nourished by the Zelaf Shanghe. In a few centuries, the city shone in the deserted desert. In the era of Papul, it is the center of education and business. In the heart of the city, Timur and his successor built Reggiestan, which is no less than the University of Islamic University of any European palace. The envoy of the Kingdom of Spain’s kinglia was seen in the court of Timuria from 1403 to 1405 from 1403 to 1405. In his journey, he wrote in the “Embassy To Tamelane” that Samarthan was a bustling metropolis. There are beautiful gardens outside the city, and the orchard can be seen everywhere.

Papul statue

Papul praised the eye -opening fruits and nuts widely planted in Central Asia in the 15th century to the 16th century. In particular, he mentioned that all kinds of melon and some specific varieties of apples are very sweet. When talking about Kabul, located in the central part of Afghanistan, he wrote: “The cold Kabul area produces grapes, pomegranates, apricots, peaches, pears, apples, tadpoles, jujube, western Li, tonsils and walnuts; It’s all rich. ” The great -grandson and Muga Emperor Nurudin Mohammad Jamill of Papul (1487-1530) also appreciated the deliciousness of Central Asia. In his autobiography, when he explained the political history of the time, it was also mentioned that the sweet apricot, peaches, melon and apples of the Samalham area also planted rice, corn and wheat. During a social meeting, he wrote: “They are present a tray with various fruits -Carritz, Padak Mountains and Cabur’s melon, grapes from Samalham and Badak, From the apples of Samalham, Kashmir, Kabul, and Jararabad (the territory of Kabul), and pineapple -a fruit that is imported from European ports. “Jamhan Gil said that the apple in Kabul is second only to Samalham And his evaluation of the Samalham Apple is: “I have never eaten such delicious apples since I lived. They said that there is a little small named Siram in Lashka -Dala near Lashka -Dala. The village, only the three trees in this village can make such apples. Although people have conducted many tests, they have never planted such delicious apples elsewhere. “

Geze Laizi Clavi further pointed out that gorgeous Persian gardens and orchards are equipped with complex and delicate irrigation pipeline systems. Before Timur’s rise, one of the most outstanding achievements of the Karakine dynasty was to invented a complete irrigation system and expanded farming activities to the desert area. The most famous example is a 100 kilometer -long canal in the Taraz area in southern Kazakhstan. In addition, there is a large -scale expansion of the existing canal network that crosses the Filgner low place (. Abu Barkl · Muhammad Ibn Jafar Nar Shashi created “History of Bukhara” around 940 AD. Poor and extravagant life. This book also mentioned that there are more than 1,000 stores in the city. The vegetable stalls are concentrated near the city walls. There are happy fruit vendors not far from the side of the city. The city walls are separated into several urban areas (Golden, 2011).

From a small amount of Persian agricultural classics, we can put together the agricultural activities of Central Asia and Iran after being conquered by Mongolian iron hoofs, such as Casim Ben Youfu Erisi Haravi “Irshad Al-Zira’a” written in Herut, Afghanistan in 1515. This book talks about gardens, vegetable gardens and beautiful pavilions with irrigation systems. However, these landmark landscapes have been transformed into noodles in the 19th and 20th centuries of local political disputes. In the book, Haravy discussed the planting of wheat, barley, corn, rice, soldier, and eagle -mouth beans; grape cultivation also had a special length of discussions. He also talked about garden crops, including cucumber, lettuce, spinach, wild radish, onion, garlic, beets and eggplant, various herbs and aromatherapy plants, marijuana, purple salamander; Dyes; there are various fruits and nuts, including melon, pomegranate, pomegranate, pear, pear, apple, peach, apricot, Li, cherry, fig, mulberry and happy fruit.

In the era of the ruler of the Karakine dynasty in the 10th century, Samalhan’s garden scale was expanded and large -scale hunting siege was established. The only court poet in Karakine, Samani Samalhami, praised Samalham as “paradise on earth”. These Persian gardens were abandoned in the years when the Mongolian war in the southern war, and then ushered in the peak of development during the Timur dynasty. In the 14th century, the densely populated Samalham and Bukhara City, the vegetable garden was compressed into land with irrigation facilities to make full use of limited space. Historians believe that these elaborate gardens that have been circulated by the Timur dynasty have echoed the forms of early gardens in the early gardens of the Achi Mamand dynasty and the Sasan dynasty. Many gardens divide the flower beds into four rectangles. The irrigation channels pass through the middle, and the surrounding is a wooden or stone -made trail.

The 19th century Russian painter Vasili Vasili Wieshda’s gold painting “Samarhan”.

Today’s Samalham is a city with a population of more than 350,000 people in eastern Uzbekistan; the market in the city center is arranged in order to arrange various stalls. Essence Today, local fruit companies are still very proud of the quality of melon. They sell the sweetest and juicy pomegranate in Asia, as well as a sweet, unique golden peach. In the season of fresh fruit, merchants can also sell raisins, Li dried, apricot, apples, figs, jujube, walnuts, pistachios, tonsils, and dizzying beans and grains. When Alexander conquered this place in 329 BC, these fruits were also known as the orchard in the Samalham of Malananda.

去吃瓜吧:丝绸之路上的水果如何改变我们的历史

Samalham is not the only ancient city of Oasis with orchards and vineyards. Orchards and vineyards are important parts of all central cities and small towns in Central Asia. These trade transit stations are nodes of ancient business roads, and they are famous for their unique local fruits. Some of them are widely praised in the entire old world. The remnants of the ancient city orchard are still there. In 1900, the Silk Road Explorer and archaeologist Olair Stein stopped the Taklaiman Desert because of his difficulties. He stopped at the town of Dan Dan Ulk ancient in the trading center of ancient Buddhist ruins. Sven Heping also visited here in 1896. Stan’s excavation of several ancient coins between 713 and 741 was discovered locally. He found that there were still rows of fruit trees in the ancient orchard, although they had been buried by sand by half. He pointed out that these rows of millennium ancient trees look like peach trees, Li trees, apricot trees and mulberry trees. However, the main reason for Stan’s excitement of this discovery was that they provided sufficient firewood salary for him to spend the cold desert night.

去吃瓜吧:丝绸之路上的水果如何改变我们的历史

At the beginning of the 17th century, the Grand Duke Frederick in Hemistein (now northern Germany) sent a team to see the Persian rulers at the time. One of the messengers named Adam Olereus said: “Pomegranate trees, tonsil trees, and fig trees are freely growing there, and there is no artificially planted order. It has even grown into the entire forest. Wild pomegranate trees are almost everywhere, especially in Karabak, the taste of wild pomegranates is extremely sour. “Despite the turmoil of centuries, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq have every for several centuries. A valley and every sprite eye can almost see the remnants of ancient orchards and family gardens.

The chief Emperor Akba Emperor Akbar Emperor Emperor Emperor Aklefalfaz Ibn Mubarak, also known as Arami. When he introduced the market of Kashmir in 1597, he clearly described the fruit trade of fruit trade Pumage scene. He pointed out that grapes, melons, pomegranates, apples, pears, pears, peaches, and apricots on the market of Kashmir (northwest of India’s secondary continent) are transported from today’s Uzbekistan and central India. His text confirmed the transportation ability of ancient merchants -to transport the easy -to -rot fresh goods to a far place, even if he had to cross the Yanyan Desert on the way.

Flowing feast: delicious on the silk road

There are not only a large number of melons and grapes, but also excellent quality; watermelon, peach, tonsil kernels, happy fruit and pomegranate can also be seen everywhere. After the conquest of Kabul, Kanda, and Kashmir, the fruit also imported a large number of imports. In the end of the year, the fruit fragrance of fruit merchants is overflowing, and the fruit supply is sufficient on the booths in the Bazaar. In Tianzhu, the Miyukana (February -March) was listed in the Persian calendar. These melons are delicious, delicate, sweet and sweet, especially Nashpati, Barbamic, Arisha, Alxa, Bargina, Dudyla and other varieties. The season for melon can last for more than two months. The melons at the beginning of the Sahelie and the month (August) are from Kashmir, and the melon categories are produced in Kabul; in Ae and Yueyue (November), the caravan is transported from Mount Badak. Melon, people can enjoy these fruits until they answer Yueyue (December). When the melon in Zabrristeinchi is in the right season, the Punjab can also buy good melons; in Bakar and its nearby areas, except for the coldest 40 days in winter, it is a season to be rich in melon. From the tiger to the moon (May) to the wooden and the moon (July), there are all kinds of grapes, and in the Moon of Shahelie, the market is full of Kashmir grapes. In Kashmir, 1 Daham can buy 8 Sille 2 grapes, and the transportation cost is 2 rupees per worker. The Kashmir put the grapes in the conical basket and looked novel. From the Black and Moon (September) to Ahe’s Biyi Shiyue, the cherry is also called “Xiaha Lu” with the grapes from Kabul -the seedless pomegranate, apple, pear, and此, guava (here is likely to be an error in translation, maybe a certain kind of citrus), peach, apricot, Gildarus, and Aruzus. Many of these fruits are also growing in Tianzhu. Some people also brought melon, pear and apples from Samalham.

Holding the banquet who came to the cup. In the first half of the 8th century AD. Crystal from the 14th site of Pengji Kente, Tajikistan.

Although historical literature shows that the items transported on the Middle Ages Silk Road are rich and diverse, it is difficult for us to pass historical proof that today’s common goods have flowed along the Silk Road. In the text of the late 10th century, the most abundant information about trade along the Silk Road is a booklet entitled “Business Survey”. Scholar Tabari believes that the author of this historical book is Arab writer Jahizz, who has written well in the fields of biology, theology, and philosophy. Jehitz has more than 200 books in his life, most of which was written in the heart of the Aza dynasty, the heart of Baghdad, 50 years. In 1954, the small book “Business Survey” was translated into French Sherbra admitted that he still had doubts about the authors of the author. However, he also pointed out that even if this book was not from Jahiz, his age was indeed in the 9th century. However, Pera believes that Jahiz himself is not very familiar with the business route of the ancient world. The most likely situation is that Jahiz understands the situation of the items that reach Baghdad all over Asia through conversations with travel merchants, especially luxury goods.

The products recorded in the book include pearls produced in different waters in South Asia (its value depends on the place of origin), as well as red chalcedony, yellow jade, various colorful turquoise, garnet, diamonds and various crystals. Jahiz also mentioned amber, gold, and musk from Tibet; silk clothing transported from other places; fur and raw skin -including rabbit skin and black fox skin in the Lihai region, as well as white hedon and black leopard skin; The car blanket produced. The color and design of textiles are extremely rich, and the fiber materials used are from Neia. For example, the Byzantine tapestry with purple stripes on the red and green shading, the felt cloth in western China, and the silk made of Iranian Isfaham.

Among the various products, it is worth mentioning that the “base of the base” and refined sugar made of the Araban -borne tree. Refined sugar may flow into Baghdad from India more than 1,000 years ago, but it is likely to be enjoyed only for the elite. Other products imported from India are tigers, elephants, black panther, sandalwood, ebony and coconuts. Commodities from China include spices represented by cinnamon, in addition to silk, porcelain, paper, peacocks, horses, saddle, felt and rhubarb. From Byzantine, gold and silver, coins, decorations, copper, seven string piano, female slaves, craftsmen and people. There are horses, ostriches, leather and wood from Arabia, and leopard skin, eagle feathers and felts obtained from the Berbells from the Berbers. From Yemen, giraffes, coats, animal skin, red chalcedony, fragrant, blue dyes and turmeric dyes. Disposal paper, yellow jade and bastard were transported from Egypt. The elites of the Ajeson dynasty purchased slaves, armor, wire mesh (maybe other metal products), fennel and sugar cane from the Kosa Khanate in southern Central Asia. Planting and processing sugar crops. The paper comes from Samalham. Grapes and mushrooms are from Balk in Afghanistan. Textile raw materials (probably cotton) and silk, pheasant and jujube fruits come from Moroshan in northeast Iran.现代伊朗区域出产蜂蜜、榅桲、苹果、梨、盐、藏红花和果子露,伊斯法罕出产各色衣物,克尔曼出产靛蓝染料、孜然、干果和鲜果、玫瑰水、亚麻、茉莉精油、 Glassware, silk and sugar, Susa Ancient City produced cedar wood, fragrant oil, and partong -carpets. Avash produced sugar, jujube and grapes, and also brought dancers.

Sweet than “Honey with sugar”: eat melon recipes

A cooking revolution occurred around this period, and the center of the revolution may be in Baghdad. The introduction of new varieties of crops such as sugarcane and rice to some extent ignite the fire of revolution, and a new type of irrigation system that creates conditions for planting these crops has also played a role in helping the flame. The Harry Fa of the Ajes dynasty invited professional chefs from all over the empire to continuously improve Arabic cooking art. The oldest Arabic recipes that have survived to this day are Mohammed Benhassa Baghdadi, “Kitab Al-Tabikh” written in 1226.

Our understanding of most of the life in the southern Central Asia and the Iranian Plateau in the afternoon AD is mostly from Islamic geographical scientists. One of the scholars named Mukadasi, who was hired in the court of Adute Doule 4 (936-983). He recorded the lower reaches of the Kula River in the Farla River in the Farsan area around 1985. Construction of irrigation systems, caravan inn and dams. He wrote that in the ancient Iranian city of Ishtakl, the irrigation system covered the city provided water for rice fields and orchards. The Cura River’s tributary Parwal River surrounds the Ishtakl relics today -the name means “pool” in Persian, which means that there may be too large reservoirs near this ancient city.

As the complex and perfect irrigation technology goes deep into Central Asia with Islam, the local diet is quietly changing. Rice may gradually become the main ingredients of dishes in Central Asia and South China during this period. In 1972, the investigation by Husam Cavam Samari on the Iraqi Iraqi Iraqi Agriculture mainly refers to the “Nabatai Agricultural Ceremony” created in the early 10th century in the early 10th century. The Iberian author, Ibn Avam, compiled a agricultural monograph — Kitab Al-Filaha, based on the information collected from the ancient author and the information collected by the contemporary authors at the end of the 12th century and the first half of the 13th century. Ibn Avam’s Agricultural Calculation) (Canard, 1959). Abdon Hamid Andalus Hana was born in 1080 and began to swim in the Quartet in 1106. He lived in Horoshan from 1130 to 1155 that there were many cities, villages, farms and fortresses nearby. He wrote that there was “various fruits, and any other countries I have traveled have never seen fruits that can be comparable to it.” He also wrote that watermelon is sweeter than “sugar -added honey”. The huge cucumber can save a whole winter. In addition, there are plump jujube, red grapes and white grapes, apples, pears and pomegranates.

The garden house in Persian fine paintings

In 988 AD, Ibn Hawqal (IBN Hawqal, from 943 to 969), described the Huazi Model as “a rich country, rich in various grains and fruits, But do not produce walnuts. They import cotton and wool fabrics from all over the world. ” Ibn Harcal was one of the few scholars who traveled in the middle of the Youth Fara River at the time. He recorded the details of the agricultural field in the “Kitab Surat Alard”. Ibn Bai Tutai is another ancient geography scientist. He traveled to South Asia and North Africa from 1325 to 1354, praising the quality of fruits around Islamic world. However, he has never been involved in the heart of Neia, so we don’t know if he has compared the fruits he recorded with the north.

去吃瓜吧:丝绸之路上的水果如何改变我们的历史

In addition to geographical works, there are many parts or all of the Arabic recipes compiled at the time. Most of these books were created in the 13th century. In order to meet the desire of Harry’s dynasties, these recipes use ingredients from the entire Iranian plateau and even the Mediterranean coast. Through these works, we can infer some details about the consumption of Central Asian people. The two most important recipes are from the Mediterranean region, and three are east of the Islamic world. The most detailed one is Kitab Al-Wuslah Ila L-Habib Fi Wasf Al-Tayyibat Wal-Tib. This book is in Syrian area. It was originally prepared for the ruler of the Ayu dynasty. The title is “Scents and Flavors the Banqueter Favors”. The book contains 635 recipes and prescriptions. It proposes the method of maintaining body fluid balance -body fluid theory is a medical concept of ancient times. Some scholars believe that this doctrine spreads from Europe to East Asia from Europe to East Asia. The recipes in the book are very diverse, with spiny mountain kimchi, barley vinegar and flower dew, and baking cups baked with pottery stoves. The richness of ingredients is unexpected: tonsil, apple, apricot, banana, jujube, fragrant, sour cherry, cucumber, eggplant, grape, hazelnut, lemon, melon, mulberry, orange, pomegranate, pomegranate and pomegranate and pomegranate and Alas. Some recipes also use asparagus, cabbage, carrots, lettuce, onion and Wujing, while vanilla and spices include agarwood, cinnamon, fennel, garlic, jasmine and other aromatic flowers, horse Yulan, poppies and sesame, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, red flowers, and red flowers. Sandalwood, sugar, lacquer trees and rhubarb.

Another ancient traveler from China also noticed the abundance of products along the way. In 1220, Qiu Chuji departed from the Central Plains at the invitation of Genghis Khan. After the Mongolian Empire, he arrived all the way to Xingdu Kush, entered the territory of Afghanistan today, and then returned to China. Li Zhichang, who was traveling west, recorded his inspection on the three -year journey. He noticed that when they came to the town of Central Asia, the locals sent them a large variety of fruits as gifts for them. He mentioned the cotton and fruits produced near the medieval town of Almaty. He called the fruits “Alma”, the transliteration of “fruits” in local languages. He also wrote that there is a vast apple garden irrigated in the town. Li Zhichang records the situation of planting rice and vegetables on the 5 coast of the Amu River, as well as the Tianshan orchard, especially the peach, walnut, and the “small peach” that may be apricot. He especially praised the fertile soil near Samalham and pointed out that except for buckwheat and soybeans Chinese grains and beans are planted here. He also praised the watermelon and eggplant in the Zelaf Shanghe River Basin (a narrow purple eggplant species). When talking about the irrigation agriculture of the Yinshan Mountains in Inner Mongolia, he pointed out that the cold climate at high altitude mature the fruit late, but the output of irrigation fields and vegetable gardens is still very high.

Empire era: officers, journalists, bandits and delicious melon

With the advent of colonialism and the era, travelers, explorers, businessmen, soldiers, and scholars from Europe, China and Arabia flood into Central Asia. Many of them have left records about the popular markets and categories of fruits. In 1671, the Italian aristocracy Anbrooshow Benbo conducted a inspection task that crossed the entire East Islamic world (mainly today in Iran). He noticed that each town is rich in fruits, especially Esfahan. He praised melon, saying that he was better than the various melons in the middle of the Mediterranean he knew. Along the way, he lived in many caravan hotels. However, he seemed to know very little about agricultural activities, and maybe he had never been close to farm and mulberry in his life. Therefore, he described the appearance of happy fruit when he had great interest. He believes that eating rubber is not in line with his status, so he gives others as a food as a food as a food, although the entire travel business team with him will stop the rubber on the edge of the oak forest.

去吃瓜吧:丝绸之路上的水果如何改变我们的历史

Alexander “Blaha” Berns, who traveled through the Xingdu Kush Mountains from 1831 to 1833 and went to Bohara. As a Lieutenant British army who could have won the reputation in the big game, he was stationed in India as the British royal messenger. Like every European traveler who passed through the Nega, the farming activities of the plowing activities in the Pakari and the Plateau Gallery of the Xingdu Cusash Mountains in various places made him stunned. He wrote that in each small valley between the mountains, the locals were planting apples, cherries, figs, mulberry, peaches, pears, pomegranates, and crickets. Bernus also noticed the farming activities of the Geckland tribe in the Gobokland tribe in 1832. Teng, pomegranate, raspberry, black gallons, and hazelnuts are everywhere; when we are close to the Camp of Turmen, we also see a large area of ​​mulberry trees. ” Perhaps because of seeing the orderly British orchards arranged in an orderly manner, Bernus did not seem to realize that the fruit trees in front of him were not wild, but a tree that was planted and carefully taken care of by the local herdsmen. Bohara, which is surrounded by high -yield cultivated land and orchard, is called “the country of vegetables.” Bernus further pointed out that Bohara’s materials are all over the entire Nei Asia, and the profits are considerable. He also described the scene where apricot, grapes and peaches were dried in the sun. Although Bukhara grapes have a high reputation (especially purple grapes and a long yellow grape), Bernes’ evaluation is that the most famous city of this oasis is melon. He used several pages in the log to sing the beauty of these melon.

James Bailey Fraser was a Scottish traveler. He traveled to a large area of ​​land in Central Asia and South Asia in the early 19th century. Essence Most of the explorers in the discovery era are mostly keen to tell the exciting and twisty adventure stories, but Fraser’s travel log is full of sadness. His conclusion is that the political situation in Persian poverty -stricken areas “violent dictatorship, extremely unstable, and corruption cannot be added.” When he went north along the road, he pointed out that the Turkmen people were “addicted to robbery and killing, selling people as slaves.” In Central Asia, he recorded the riots of the diseases and robbery that made the lives of the spirit, as well as the atrocities of the Turkmen invaders. This was common before the expansion of the Tsarist Russia Empire. In fact, only two points in Persian territory were praised: fruits and women. He described a small village in Sumanan, Iran, where the displaced Syrian lived. He pointed out that the woman in that village was very beautiful, and the only thing that could be compared with their crimson cheeks was the apple grown in the village. He searched for shops on the market, talked to fruit vendors, and spent the night at the hotel’s hotel. He praised the quality of several small towns, especially the area of ​​Felgana and Zelaf Shanghe.

On the market in Central Asia, you can always see all kinds of fruits and dried fruits that cannot be seen at a glance

Agricultural activities in the Central Asian mountains and hills are also fascinated by Fraser. He records that there is a small village in northern Iran’s hills north of Nichapur. “There are large gardens there, fruit trees are everywhere, and the fruit flavor is full of fruit … The low -lying areas between the valley can be seen everywhere, and the valley has water to nourish them. ” When followed the caravan to go deep into the mountains, Fraser noticed a valley, “It is covered with a walnut tree, mulberry, poplar, and willow trees; The trickle provides them with water. ” In northern Mashhide, he, he witnessed the formation of wheat and barley fields. The planted watermelon, melon, apple, pear, apricot and various grapes spread to the mountains. He pointed out that the tonsils, pistachios, saffron, and “most superior” fruits were exported from Hrate. In addition, there were silk silk. As for Central Asia, he praised the fruits in the area of ​​Zelaf Shanghe, saying that “Buhara’s fruits are said to be top -level; There are all time to make fruits such as melon; the sweet melon’s head and flavor are praised, and the weight can often reach 20 pounds, and it can be kept fresh and delicious in seven or eight months of the year. ” He also talked about the rotation system of Fergana’s irrigation agriculture and crops. Fraser pointed out that there are farming activities in Haohan’s surrounding areas, and the planting of fruit trees and nuts- “tall pine trees, poplars, apricot trees, walnut trees and happy fruit trees” has spread from the city to the mountains (Fraser, 1825 1825 To.

Eugene Skeler, born in Isaac, New York State, is an American scholar and the first American diplomat in Central Asia under the occupation of Russia in 1873. He visited Hiva, Tashkend, Samarhan, Buhara and Haohan. In 1877, the travel log “Turkistan” (Turkistan “described the lives of cities and locals that are still active along the Silk Road. He praised the fruits, nuts, luxurious gardens, orchards, and vineyards in each city in the city, and also mentioned that people would send him a plate of fresh fruits and dried fruits before meals. Like many other explorers, Skeler noticed that he had been in ancient ruins. “The traces of ancient farming can be seen everywhere in this area. Obviously, there have been a larger population here. In some places, the mounds in some places are now full of shuttle trees and other shrubs, but they are obviously the ruins of the former city.”

Along the way, Skeler moved forward and reported that the journey was the US special American reporter Jiuniilis McGaham, the New York Pioneer News. The reporter later was famous for reporting the Turkish massacre of Bulgaria. His journey focuses on recording politics and military activities, such as Russia’s aggression against Hivhan in 1873. However, his text also praised the high -quality fruits of the city. He noticed that the Orchard River (he calls the Black River) is widely distributed along the coast, “planting a variety of fruit trees”; he described the garden and orchard that could not be seen as “a veritable paradise.” He described the road leading to Hiva City: “The apricot tree is still covered with rose golden fruits, which looks dazzling; the micro -rice fields are still lush, and the wheat and barley golden wheat stalks are interesting. It has not been tied into wheat bundles, and only piled into dried grass -like wheat piles, waiting for the horseshoe to step on the granules. “He not only recorded dry and fresh fruits along the important trade routes from Hina and other Central Asian cities, but also specially specially Speaking of Hiva’s dried fruit exports to Russia, as well as the local species of Gourd and fruit trees, especially pomegranate and figs. He found that whether in cities or farmhouses in the desert, Turkmen people have the habit of planting crops. Although the land is barren, agriculture is still the local economic pillar.

Edmond Odorvan was a reporter from Ireland. He was killed in Sudan when reporting the British’s brutal suppression of a colonial uprising. In order to witness the Battle of the Russian army against Giokatay’s last Turkmen Fortress, he crossed northern Iran, ran all the way, and entered the modern Turkmenistan. He sat on the hillside and watched a team of Turkmen warriors who were besieged by the Russian armed forces with a small Russian armed forces who were besieged in the fortress. This battle ended the Turkmen people’s freedom in 1881. Odorvan followed the caravan to take a long journey along the Silk Road. Drama changes in the Silk Road of Russia during the Russian rule: caravan hotels were equipped with cannons. In Odotan’s description, each town he stayed along the way was surrounded by the orchard, providing water sources by the irrigation system that is thousands of meters. He also mentioned that when he arrived in a small town, he was greeted by the silver pallets full of dry fruits and nuts, which made people feel difficult. Another small village is characterized by: “There is a dense forest, almost all of which or that kind of fruit tree. The jujube trees (what he refers to sand dates) is similar to the gray green leaves and olive trees. Trees and pomegranate trees in dark green trees. “

He stopped in modern town Melff (Mary), not far away was the remains of the largest business town of the Silk Road in the past. “Almost a year, the fruits on the market are sufficient and delicious. In fact, Melff was highly praised in the past in the past. Gift gifts to each other. “He evaluated the peaches planted by different varieties of breeds around the city, and they were all delicious, and he liked the most delicious peach he had tasted — it was a body shape Small dark red varieties. Xingzi made him laugh, but after eating dates, he felt dry. In the market, he saw the Central Asian cheese (Kulut), sour milk, mutton, beef, camel meat, and occasionally see antelope and wild horse meat in the sun. And eggs. Other products include cotton textiles, coarse silk and camel hair. Russian merchants sell long short rifles, printed cloths and leather. Other vendors sell green tea, square sugar or rock sugar. The vendors from the distance from China bring tea bowl, teapot and peace cup. Some people sell food, wooden spoons, dishes, clothes, hats, knife and fish.

In addition to lingering between rows of businesses, Odotan also followed the caravan on the Silk Road to cross northern Iran. He recorded the scene of the cultivation of cultivated land and recreational land he saw, and the sporadic village was embellished in the field. Based on the many archeological relics along the way, he inferred that the region had more people in the past. In a business team in northern Iran, when the horn sound sounded and signaled that large caravans could set north to Merff, he depicted such a picture: “Camels with full luggage and preparing to get on the road Standing there with the mule, a little movement, the bells on their bodies rang. The dome and turret of the Shah Abbas Chamber of Commercial Team Inn appear extraordinarily protruding in the twilight sky. “He and this businessman The team walked through the small towns such as Abbas -Abad, Maknan and Melharshar, and arrived in Sabzavar -he parted ways with the caravan, walked on the road, and started the next adventure. Essence

Two Uzbekistan vendors were sitting on the stalls in the Central Bazaar of Samalham and shot in 1911.

The market is the core of social life in Central and South China. There is a large trading square in the center of each city. Sometimes open -air is open, and now it is often covered with Russian corrugated plastic ceiling. The market is not only the source of food for people, but also a bond of social and trade exchanges. For hundreds of years, businessmen have been between the markets of countless cities in Islam and the Turkish world. Two Uzbekistan vendors were sitting on the stalls in the central Bazaar of Samalham, which was taken in 1911. They sell apples, lemon, pomegranate, raisins, apricot and dried Li dried, as well as hazelnuts, eggs, biscuits (Sushki, a dry and hard bread, similar to European pepper cakes) and melons. Farmers have carefully carried the unique varieties of the local area. Hundreds of melons that have been proud of growers in Central Asia today are the crystallization of the heart blood of melon farmers. Regardless of the central Asian city, travelers who come in autumn will be invited to taste melon. Each city claims that its melon is preferred in Central Asia.

Author | [Midea] Robert N. Sperture III is translated by Chen Yang

去吃瓜吧:丝绸之路上的水果如何改变我们的历史

Excerpt | Li Yang

School Division | Zhao Lin