Surging News reporter Gao Dan
Starting from the end of the Ping An era, the interesting monster image appeared in Japanese painting. It has gradually become a unique landscape through the depiction of Ukiyo -e painting masters such as Katsui Hokuski and Kawagawa Guofang.
From the end of July to August 31st, the “Light of Raw · The Light of Ukiyaki: YOKAI of Japan” Art Exhibition was held at the Beijing 798 Art Factory. This is currently the first exhibition presented by Japan’s unique “monster culture”. More than a hundred Japanese Ukiyo -e -works have also produced a number of Japanese monsters. From the “birth of monsters”, to “Hundred Ghosts Nights”, bringing people into a distant mysterious world, and sorting out the development history of monster culture in Japan for nearly 400 years with Ukiyo -e -works.
Japan is a country with more religious beliefs. There are three major religions of Shinto, Buddhism, Christianity, and many small religions. Among them, Shinto is the state religion of Japan. The so -called Shinto is the way of gods. It is a traditional religion. I believe that everything has spiritual things and worship of elves. This belief makes the general public in the Ping An era and earlier in Japan believe that they live in a mysterious world of “hundred ghost nights”: the place where humans and monsters live overlap, humans are active in the day, monsters are at night haunt. Whenever night falls, many monsters with different shapes appear on the streets. This night monster is called a hundred ghost night walk.
The organizer of “Light of Raw · The Light of Ukiyaki: Yokai of Japan” introduced that Japanese monsters have entered the field of painting began in the end of the peace era. At that time, there were only a handful of paintings with monsters. The content mainly depicts the process of monsters from appearing to being surrendered. In Muromachi, the painting volume of “Hundred Ghost Night Walks” was prevailing, and the classic paintings of “Affecting Japanese Monster Painting” painted by Tosa Guangxin were born- “Bai Gui Night Walk Painting Version (Dae Temple Temple Version) 》, Monsters, who are mainly funerals, form a team of travel, swimming together, and the monster’s face gradually became clear. In the Edo period, the monsters were independent of each other and introduced them to the public in the form of Ukiyo -e -form. As a highly popular role in folk, monsters naturally do not lack the drawing of famous masters. After the efforts of generations of painters, monster paintings are not only popular in the world, but also become a unique landscape in Ukiyo -e painting.
As a result, some interesting monster images and stories follow the theme of “Hundred Ghosts Night Walk” is the public knows Yuzao Qian, Tengu, Jiutong boy, Ibaraki boy, Qingji, Cat Monster, Kim Taear … These monsters were vividly presented vividly through Ge Jihai Beizhai, Gechuan Guofang, Yuegangfang Nian, Kawaki Xiaozhai, Toyo Guo Zhou, Gechuan Fangyan, Gechuan Fanghu, Yang Zhou Zhou Yan and other Ukiyo -e -Master. They were vividly present.
“The Birth of a Japanese Monster” and “Ping An Monster”
The first part of the exhibition tells “the birth of Japanese monsters.” The origin of the Japanese monster dates back to the Toshwen era (about 5.500 ~ 4500). At that time, people were closely associated with nature. Many inconsistent incidents were fermented in their hearts through horror in their hearts, and they became a “monster or god” that word of mouth. It was a time when God and Monster were integrated on both sides, and it became a monster that was beneficial to people and harmful to people. In the Bird Times (592 ~ 710), Japan introduced Chinese characters on a large scale from China and used Chinese characters as a sign symbol to express Japanese. Finally, there was a native record text. In the early days of the Nara period (710 ~ 794), in the “Japanese Book Chief” edited by Emperor Tianwu, there were legends of gods and monsters such as the great god of God, the Hachi Snake, and the Earth Spiders.
The first exhibition area restored the shape of the “Earth Spider” monster
In the concept of supernatural “monsters”, the existence of supernatural attributes that humans have not yet explained. In Japanese culture, the worship of “gods” is very devout. In history, the Japanese people believe in the legend of the “eight million gods”. Whether it is daily life, agricultural labor, or daily life, they believe in the “god”. The presence.
In the mythology system in Japan, “God” is also the ancestor of the Japanese. Yisanaki, who was born in Gao Tianyuan, and Yixie Namei in the center of the “jade pillar of heaven”, repeatedly gave birth to all things, and to later generations The blending of man and the gods is very close, so it has spawned the Japanese people’s love for “monster culture”. The image of “monster” often talks about heroic portrayal and becomes a hero legend.
During this period, the monsters were relatively simple. At the exhibition site, a work of a Kabuki “earth spider” of a Kabuki “Earth Spider” was described as the theme, depicting the story of the Turkish spider caused a commotion in Yuan Laiguang Mansion. In ancient Japan, the barbarians who did not have the respect of the royal power and the emperor were called “earth spiders” or “national qi”. These titles were all scornful names for spending primitive people in the wild mountains. With the changes of the times, the earth spiders were compiled by the story and opera into a monster from the other world, describing as a spider with extremely huge body shapes. They often come out in the mountains and are brutal. They often tie people they see with their clues and bring them back to the cave’s residence to eat. In the legend of Turkey Spiders, the most famous is the story of Yuan Laiguang’s four heavenly kings that kills the earth spider.
“Earth Spider” in Ukiyoshi
Sino -Japanese culture is inextricably linked. A work named “Journey to the West” on the spot is a cover of a novel, depicting the scene of “Wukong Blowing Mao Changca”. Sun Wukong was widely welcomed through the introduction of the classical novel “Journey to the West” in the Ming Dynasty in Japan. “Journey to the West” was introduced into Japan in the Edo period. There are at least four versions of the rough view of roughly.
“Journey to the West”
The Ping An Times (794 ~ 1192) was very unwavering, the natural disasters and people’s disasters continued, and the gap between the rich and the poor in society was extremely large. Under the psychological demands of all parties and the low pressure of the people, the “monster” became the darkest reason for this world. Monsters We are defined as the existence of the same space as others. People live carefully, lest that some kind of taboos attract ghosts and gods. In order to fight these monsters, the Ping An era not only gave birth to a “official” division team, the Yin Yang division, but also introduced the ghost master “Zhong Yan” from China. Such atmosphere provided imagination and material for many literary creation at that time, such as “The Story of Genji”, “The Story of the Story of the Premier”, and “Japan’s Spiritual Story”. Based on this as the background, the Ping An era is known as the prosperity and development period of Japanese monster culture. “Tengu”, “Resentment” and “Qing Ji” are the most well -known existence among the monsters in the Ping An era.
In the story of Qing Ji, Qing Ji fell in love with the handsome monk An Zhen at first sight and started a fierce pursuit. An Zhen lied away, and Qing Ji chased and chased out of the snake. The two finally met at Daocheng Temple. An Zhen hid in the big bell. Qing Ji wrapped the big bell. Later, the “Legend of An Zhenqing Ji” spread the interpretation of the theme on the stage such as energy drama, Kabuki, and humanoid net glazed drama. The image of Qing Ji’s paranoia is also depicted by many painters.
The image of Qing Ji in “The Story of An Zhenqing Ji”
The image of the samurai in “The Story of An Zhenqing Ji”
The image of Tengu in Japan ’s Ukiyo -e -painting: Tengu is one of the most famous monsters in Japan. Most of the image is tall, red face and long nose, wearing motto, high -toothed wooden crickets, holding feathers and hamas. They usually live in lives. Daishan is a monster with powerful power.
“Orange Spring Fox Geye” is painted by Kabuki who tells the story of the white fox Geye. Ge Ye is the name of a female fox in the legend of Japanese. It is also known as Ge Zhiye Fox, Nobunaga Wife, and Nobunaga’s wife. In the era of Emperor Murakami, the wife of Ishikawa Evil Right Weimen in Hanoi was seriously ill. His brother Ruwu Dao was full of fortune telling. He learned that he had to eat the liver of the wild fox in the Shin Tai Zhisen in Quanguo and Quanjun County. Healing, Ishikawa Evil Right Weimen sent people to hunt fox. Abe’s Bao Ming, who was born in the Abe area of Toyo Toye County, was injured in the scholarship of the white fox hunted by the hunter when he worshiped. At this time, a woman who claimed to be Ge Ye appeared. Go home. Ge Ye and Bao Namedi, finally got married, and gave birth to son Tongzi Wan. Tongzan was the famous Japanese Yin Yang Shi Qingming later.
“Orange Spring Fox Geye” Ukiyo -World
Kamakura, Muromachi era of “famous demon”
Japan gradually resumed cultural exchanges with the Song Dynasty of the Song Dynasty in the Song Dynasty of the Kamakura (1185 ~ 1333). Affected by the new Buddhism of the Song Dynasty, religious painting rolls have new content and techniques, and the colored paintings and white depiction volumes with social background and storyline were born. “Roll”.
Entering the Muromachi Times (1333 ~ 1573) was affected by Zen thought, Song and Yuan culture, etc., and developed in parallel in art forms. Culture penetrated into all levels of society.
The transformation has spawned the unique “people’s culture”. During this period, it was also the key period of the development of Japanese monster culture. The monsters had a large -scale departure from the textbooks and picture books that were separated from the detailed description of the text. Monsters have a similar attitude, emotion and appeal, and their distance is closer to people. Known as the classic painting roll “Affecting Japanese Monster Painting”, “Hundred Ghost Night Walking Scrolls (Daide Temple Masaru Version)”, legend is legendary to be drawn by the shogunate generals, the government, and the guest Qing Tuzuxin. In “Hundred Ghost Night Walks”, the monsters are given “human nature”. With the appearance of more people, it has a great impact on the drawing of later generations of monsters. Therefore, Tosa Guangxin is also known as the ancestor of the Japanese monster painting. With the emergence of Yoga grass, it has weakened the fear of monsters in people’s hearts, and the entertainment of monsters has accelerated. Famous roles such as “Jiu Tun Boy”, “Ibaraki Boy”, “October of Yuzao”, and “Kim Toron” appeared one after another.
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Yuegang Fangnian’s “Hell Master”
During this period, the famous fox girl Yuzao appeared. Her initial name was the Against Girl. She was adopted for the Bus and Sakura, and gradually became a beautiful woman. At the age of 18, he was clicked into the palace and became a female official who became the emperor of the bird feather. Due to its beauty and knowledge, the love of Bird Yu Emperor became the most favored concubine in the palace. Soon after, the emperor was not in bed, but the imperial doctor of the imperial family could not claim the cause. Abe Taicheng judged that it was a monster in front of Yuzao. The concubine was not a beauty at all, but a white -faced golden retriever nine -tailed fox.
Fox Girl Yaozao
Ge Chuan Guangzhong’s works “Hundred Scenic Scenery of the Famous Institute” combined with the legend, fantasizing the scene of fox fox groups on New Year’s Eve every year to ignite the fox fire divination and harvest. Although the forest in the painting is surrounded by darkness, new green is still exposed.
“Dajiangshan Wine Removal” is the end of the Edo Ukiyo -Emperor Ge Chuan Fangyan’s 5 -year -old Ukiyo -e -painting work, depicting the legendary “Yuan Lai Guang’s killing the monster and swallowing the boy”. Jiutong Toy is a very popular monster in Japan. The first appearance of his image is considered to be in the late Muromachi work “Painting Words of Dajiangshan”. Essence “Killing Jiujiu Tongzi” was depicted by many Ukiyo -e -master masters such as Tengchuan Haruki, Gechuan Guofang, and Yuegangfang Nian Toshiyuan Guozhou. The composition mode, the color of the picture is strong, depicting the sponged boy’s shape and sorrowful face into a wooden three -pointer, adding a “confrontation” form.
“Dajiangshan Wine Stealing Retreat” part of the part
On -site device reproduced Jiuyao Retreat (Jiutong Tongzi)
Ge Ji Hokusai, Gechuan Guofang’s Ukiyo Monster
The fourth part of the exhibition shows the well -known Ukiyo -e -Master Kitzhai, Kawagawa Guofang, Yuegangfang Nian, and Kawano Xiaozhai during the Edo period, showing the most exciting Edo Monster pictures. The image and personality of the monster also officially walked from language and text into the scroll through the imagination and creation of the artists in this era.
In the Edo period, people believe that a person’s grievances will continue after his death. People think that those souls that retaliated or jealous usually return to the world in the form of poisonous snakes. “Bai Story” was drawn from the 2 ~ 3 years of Tianbao (1831 ~ 1832). painted. It is said that the original version was as many as 100 works. But now the only confirmation is “Shuyan さ H (Ayan)”, “Diwu Shi (Dianwu Shi)”, “Smile Flying は H に に (((((“, “し う う 念 h (obsessed)”, Five of “Xiaoshi Long Xiaoping II (Xiao Tan Xiaoping)”. The monsters in these works come from the strange stories that people are familiar with. Whether it is Awan, who is poisoned by her husband, or a smile of the children’s head with a corner and a teeth, they all have a thrilling and funny state, and from them. In his eyes, he even revealed Silk sadness.
In “Xiaoping of Bai Story”, Xiaopingji was a Kabuki actor, and it was difficult to get a good role due to stupid acting skills. Xiaoping, who has always wanted to make a head -up, bribed the theater with Master’s help, and finally got a ghost role. He regarded this performance as the last chance of life. He faced the face of the dead to seriously study the ghost character after unremitting efforts. The ghost played by Xiaoping was finally praised, known as “Ghost Xiaoping” and gained popularity.
Xiaoping has a wife named Nakasuka, but Tsuka is very annoying to the stupid Komi. He has been in the back of the ground with the drum. Seeing that Xiaoping became more and more popular, Zuo Jiulang gradually started to kill a certain time to go to Anjishi (now Fukushima County), Aozhou (now Fukushima Prefecture). The wilderness was drowned in the swamp. After the incident, Zuo Jiulang returned home. But the two did not live a happy life, and Xiaoping, who became a ghost, appeared on their bedside every night. The ghost Xiaoping used various ways to scare them. In the end, Zuo Jiulang died madly. Died in non -fate.
Smile Prajna is the monster in the legend of Nagano County described in the Edo era. It is said that the evil spirits formed by the strong jealousy of a woman. Prajna lives in the mountains and goes to eat people in the middle of the night. It is a female ghost who specializes in grabbing children, and she will make creepy terrible laughter.
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Ayan’s story tells that the beauty of Awan Awan became weak as her husband, Yi Weiwei, and her body and appearance began to go. At this time, Yishuimen met A Mei, a rich lady who was rich, and was disgusted with A Yanxin. After repeatedly proposed the divorce was rejected, Yi Youwei gathered a murderous heart and replaced the tonic medicine taken by Awiping to the poison. After eating poison, Awan, who did not know, began to ulcerate her face, her appearance became very horrible, and she resentful in sadness and pain. After the death, Awan became a grievance. She went to Yishoumen and Amei’s new home and started her retaliation plan, and eventually made Yiyou Weimen’s family destroy. It is said that Awan is a actual character. Now, in Shinuki, Shinjuku, Tokyo, Shima Shrine Shrine in Shinjuki, Tokyo is one of the shrines to worship Awan.
The master of Ukiyo -e painting Yuegang Fangnian was a famous Ukiyo painter in Edo at the end of the Meiji period of Edo, known as the “last Ukiyo -emperor”. Fangnian’s works are headed by martial arts painting, and there are many works such as historical paintings, beauty painting, service, and custom painting. , Fang Nian also has the title of “Blood Dye”.
Fang Nian published a collection of Ukiyo -e -works “He Han Bai Story” with the theme of Japan and China, and draws 26 Monster painting. In the 13th year of the Meiji (1880), Fang Nian published a collection of works with weird topics “Talking about Hansqi”, which was well received. “Monster” has become a unique symbol in Fang’s works.
Bai Story is a traditional Japanese monster gathering custom. The origin was unknown and rose in the Edo period. Most of the Baili -Story Games happened in the summer night. People gathered in the dark room to lit a hundred candles and started telling the monster story in turn. After telling a story, a candle was destroyed. It is said that the last candle will appear. While the folk holding a hundred states, many strange books and paintings with the theme of Bai Story have also been sought after by the people.
Yuegang Fangnian “He Han Bai Story” Qing Ji
Yuegang Fang Nian “He Han Bai Story” does not break his companion
Yuegang Fang Nian “He Han Bai Story” Onokawa Katsukawa Katsuya
Yuegang Fang Nian “He Han Bai Story” is desperate for her mother -in -law
Gechuan Guofang is one of the representative figures of Ukiyo -ewan in the late Edo period. It is famous for samurai painting. In addition to samurai painting, Guo Fang is also known for his love cat painting cat. He not only supports cats in the workshop, but also draws a number of cats. Anti -humanization of animals such as fish, raccoon.
Gechuan Guofang Ukiyo -World Painted Works
“The Light of Shengli: Yokai of Japan” art exhibition will last until August 31.
Editor in charge: Qian Xueer
School pair: Zhang Yan
Gechuan Guofang Ukiyo -World Painted Works